Hetaerina Hagen in Selys1853 -Rubyspots

Notes - MichiganSpecies List - Key -References
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Page last updated: 10August 1998 (EB)

Notes onthe Michigan Species of Hetaerina

These large stream damselflies are mostnumerous in Central and South America - with four (maybe five)species reaching the United States and only two recorded fromMichigan (see maps below). Records of H.americana are known only from the LP,though it appears widespread there. One well-established locality inLivingston County exists for H.titia, and it appears conspecific withH. americana (Weichsel 1987, 1998; pers. obs.). Another old literature record exists fromOakland County (Kormondy 1958).

Larvae are similar to Calopteryx in habits,frequenting the edges of gently flowing streams and rivers wherewhere woody debris, leafy matter or sometimes where dense macrophytesaccumulate (Westfall and May1996; pers. obs.). Larvae ofHetaerinatend to emerge later in the year (mid-June through mid-July) thanspecies of Calopteryx (late May through June), though Weichsel (1987) indicates that adults are on-wing as early as late-May.I (EB) have seen large numbers of exuvia in the third week of June(1996) from upstream River Raisin in southeastern Michigan (JacksonCounty). Adults emerged enmass from a quiessent part of thestream thick with aquatic vegetation that protruded from the watersurface.

The name "rubyspots" comes from the vivid redmarkings at the wings bases of adult males. The UMMZ collection ofadult Hetaerina - thanks to years of work by E. B. Williamson, E. J.Kormondy and L. K. Gloyd - is probably the most extensive in theworld. Zloty et al.(1993) used Cellulose Acetate GelElectrophoresis to associate larvae and adults of Costa RicanHetaerinain order to construct a diagnostic key, a method with much futurepromise in distinguishing groups with similar-appearingspecies.

Other links with information on the biology orecology of larval Hetaerina:
Hetaerina in water quality study in Venezuela>>http://www.redpav-fpolar.info.ve/entomol/v09-1/v0901a04.html

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MichiganSpecies List

Map 1Map 2

Hetaerina americana (Fabricius,1798) - American Rubyspot - Map 1
Hetaerina titia (Drury,1773) - Smoky Rubyspot - Map 2

Key to Mature Larvae of Michigan Hetaerina
(Adapted from Walker1953 and Westfall and May1996)

1a. Abdominalsegment 8 with lateral spine; prominent sharp tubercle onpostero-lateral margin of head (fig.1); 3 stout spines onposterolateral margin of abdominal segment 10 (fig.2); gillsdistinctly banded (fig.3) - H.titia
Fig.1Fig.2 Fg. 3
H. titia from Péten, Guatemala, collected in1938 by C. L. Hubbs and H. van der Schalie.

Nolateral spines present on abdominal segment 8; tubercles onpostero-lateral margin of head low and blunt; no stout posterolateralspines on abdominal segment 10, not as above; gills not banded asabove, except perhaps on margins; fairly common in the LP -H. americana

Fig. 4
H. americana collected from Washtenaw Co., Michigan,USA.

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Drury, D. 1773.Illustrations of Natural History. Vol. 2. White: London. 90pp.

Fabricius, J. C.1798. Supplementum entomolgiae Systematicae. Hafniae, Proft.(Schubothe), pp. 283-285.

Kormondy, E. J.1958. A catalogue of the Odonata of Michigan. Miscellaneous Publications, Museum of Zoology,University of Michigan 104:1-43.

 Selys-Longschamps, E. de. 1853.Synopsis des Calopterygines. Bulletin del'Académie royale des Sciences de Belgique (1)20:1-73 (reprint 1-73).

Walker, E. M. 1953.The Odonata of Canada and Alaska, Vol. 1. University of TorontoPress: Toronto, Ontario. 292 pp.

Weichsel, J. I.1987. The life history and behavior of Hetaerina americana (Fabricius) (Odonata: Calopterygidae) (Michigan). Ph.Ddissertation, The University of Michigan. 208 pp.

Weichsel, J. I.1998. Hetaerina titia is in Michigan!. Williamsonia2(3):1.

Westfall, M.J., Jr. and M. L. May. 1996. Damselflies of North America. ScientificPublishers: Gainesville, Florida. x + 650 pp.

Zloty, J., G.Pritchard and C. Esquivel. 1993. Larvae of the Costa RicanHetaerina(Odonata: Calopterygidae) with comments on distribution.Systematic Entomology 18:253-265.

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