Calopteryx Leach,1815 -Jewelwings

Fig. 1:C.maculata,collected from Lenawee Co., Michigan
April 1997

Notes -Michigan SpeciesList - Key -References
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Page last updated: 10August 1998

Notes on the Michigan Species of Calopteryx

Two of the five North American species -C. maculata and C.aequabilis - are found in Michigan.Both species of these very large damselflies are quite common instreams and rivers. Larvae are most frequently sampled from woodydebris and rootlets of vegetation, to which they cling, in streamsand river sections with adequate current. Whereas C. aequabilis tends to befound in larger streams and rivers, larvae of C. maculata commonlyfrequent smaller streams in shaded, forested areas (Figure 2), thoughthere is some overlap and both species sometimes are conspecific. Thelatter species tends to be more commonly encountered in our state,though both are found throughout the state (see maps below).

Fig. 2. Calopteryx maculata habitat. The picture below is representative of thesmall streams in which C.maculata is frequently found.Larvae typically are found near and underneath streambanks with woodydebris, or aquatic vegetation. Larvae of C. aquabilis aremore often found in larger streams with more open vegetation. Smalltributary of the East Branch of the St. Joseph River, Lenawee County,Michigan. Picture: © Mark O'Brien, 1997.

Life history of larvae for both species inAlgonquin Park, Ontario was studied by Martin (1939). She found C.maculata to be univoltine,C. aequabilis semivoltine and requiring two or more years to completedevelopment. In terms of growth rate, that of C. aequabilis tended to begreater than early on, then decreases, whereas that ofC. maculata increases with maturity. Females required more time tomature than males. Very early instars of the two species weredistinguishable based on the head width and length of the proximalantennal segment.

I (EB) have seen adults of C. maculata on wing inearly May in southern Michigan (Black Creek, tributary of the RiverRaisin, Lenawee Co.) as well as C.maculata and C. aequabilis through mid-to late-June (Mountain Stream, Huron Mountains, Marquette Co.). Theseare some of our most beautiful of damselflies, rarely straying farfrom stream and river margins. Their intricate mating behavior,particularly that of male territoriality and mating rituals, has beenthe focus of much research wherever this genus occurs (e.g.,Walker1953, Johnson 1962, Waage1973 and Conrad & Herman1987).

Other links with information on the biology orecology of larval Calopteryx:
none found as of 15 January 1998

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Michigan Species List

Map 1Map 2
Maps 1-2: County distribution of the Michigan species of
Click on map for a largerimage

Calopteryxaequabilis Say, 1839 - River Jewelwing - map 1
Calopteryx maculata (Beauvois, 1805) - Ebony Jewelwing - Map 2

Key to the Calopteryx Larvae of Michigan
(References: Walker 1953 and Westfall and May1996)

1. Length ofantennal segment 1 ca. 0.85x than width of head across eyes (Fig. 1);tubercles behind eyes prominent and acute, raised above level of eyes(Fig. 2); hind femur of final instar larva 7.5 mm or less -C. maculata

Fig. 1 Fig. 2:C. maculata

1A. Length ofantennal segment 1 ca. 0.95x or greater than width of head acrosseyes (Fig. 1); tubercles behind eyes low and rounded, not raisedabove level of eyes (Fig. 3); hind femur of final instar larva 8.2 mmor more - C.aequabilis

Fig. 3: C.aequabilis

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Beauvois, P. de. 1805. Insectes recuilles en Afrique eten Amerique dans les royaumes d'Oware, a Saint-Dominique et dans lesÉtais-Unis pendants les années 1781-1797.Levrault:Paris. 167 pp.

Conrad, K. F.and T. B. Herman. 1987. Territorial and reproductive behavior ofCalopteryx aequabilis Say (Zygoptera: Calopterygidae) in Nova Scotia, Canada.Advances in Odonatology 3:41-50.

Johnson, C. 1962.Breeding behavior and ovipoistion in Calopteryx maculatum (Beauvois) (Odonata: Calopterygidae). American Midland Naturalist 68:242-247.

Leach, W. E. 1815.Entomology, pp. 52-172. In Brewster's Edinburghencyclopaedia. Vol. 9. Edinburgh.

Martin, R. D. C.1939. Life histories of Agrion aequabile and Agrion maculatum(Agriidae: Odonata). Annals of theEntomological Society of America32(3):601-615, pls. 1-4.

Say, T. 1839.Descriptions of new North American neuropterous insects andobservations on some already described by (the late) Th. Say.Journal of the Academy of NaturalScience of Philadelphia 8:9-46.

Waage, J. K. 1973.Reproductive behaviour and its relation to territoriality inCalopteryx maculata (Beauvois). Behavior47:240-256.

Walker, E. M. 1953.The Odonata of Canada and Alaska, Vol. 1. University of TorontoPress: Toronto, Ontario. xi + 292 pp.

Westfall, M.J., Jr. and M. L. May. 1996. Damselflies of North America. ScientificPublishers: Gainesville, Florida. x + 650 pp.

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