Glossary
(Adopted from: Corbet 1988;Gullan and Cranston 1994; Westfalland May 1996)
A BC DE F GH I J K LM N OP Q RS T UV W XY Z


A
abdomen - anterior portion of insect body generally containingreproductive, digestive and respiratory functions (picture)
acuminate -ending in a long, tapering point
acute - a ridgeor projection sharply pointed at apex
antenna,antennae (pl.) - long, narrow sensory structures placedat the front (postfrons) of the head between the eyes and ocelli(picture)
anterior -towards the front or head of an organism
apical - at theend, tip, or outermost part (picture)
approximate
- close together or nearly touching
axial
-extending along the longitudinal axis

B
benthic
(adj.), benthos (n) -bottom sediments of aquatic habitats and/or the organisms that residein them

C
callaponds - ponds dominated bythe calla lily, Zantedeschiaaethiopica
carina,
carinae (pl.), carinate (adj.)- keel or elevated ridge (picture)
caudal
-towards the rear end of the body; of, or pertaining to thetail
caudal lamella
- gill structures at the end of zygopteran abdomensfunctioning for respiration and/or locomotion, consisting of a middleor median gill (formed by distal expansion of the epiproct) and two lateral gills (formed by distalexpansion of the paraprocts)(picture)
cercus,cerci (pl.) - appendages lateral to the epiproctsituated at the tip of the abdomen, in male adult used for couplingwith female (picture)
claw - usuallycurved, sharp terminal structure of the tarsus
compound eye -principal visual apparatus placed dorsal-laterally on the head
coxa - basalsegment of the leg (picture)
crenation, crenate (adj.) - toothed by even, rounded notches (picture)
crenulate -minutely crenate

D
decumbant - bentdownward
dentate,dentations - toothed(picture)
denticulate -minutely dentate
depressed -flattened dorsally (on the back)
dilated -widened, expanded
distal,distad - outward, away frombase. ant. proximal
distal hook - see end hook
dorsal,dorsum - from above, towardsthe upper surface of the body when organism is in normal walkingposition. ant. ventral
dorsal hook -mid-dorsal posterior protuberances on anisopteran abdomens that mayvary from small, rounded tubercles to large, thick sharp spines(picture)

E
emarginate -notched
endhook - a fixed, hooklikeprojection of the anteromedial corner of the labial palp of larvae(figure)
entire - smooth,not notched or divided
epaulets
epiproct -unpaired structure borne on the middorsal upper margin of Ab10,bounded on both sides by the cerci and above the paraprocts
exuvia,exuviae (pl.) - cast-off exoskeleton remaining after amolt, especially the last larval molt to adulthood

F
femur - thethird, usually largest segment of leg

I
inferiorappendage - see paraproct
incised - cut ina slit or narrow groove
instar - stageof larval development that are separated from one another by moltingof cuticular exoskeloten

L
labial palp
labium - mostposterior mouthparts, elonged and hinged in larvae of Odonata forgrasping of prey
larva,larvae (pl.) - immaturefeeding stage of insect that undergoes a major reorganization of bodyform when transforming to the adult (reproductive) stage; see alsonaiad, nymph
lateralappendage - see cercus
lateral spine -spine at posterior end of lateral carina
lentic - refersto stationary-water environments (ponds, lakes, etc.); ant.lotic
ligula -anterior, median projection of the larval prementum
lotic - refersto flowing-water environments (brooks, streams, rivers, etc.); ant.lentic
LP - LowerPeninsula of Michigan

M
mandible
- most anterior of the paired mouthparts, and the mainchewing organs (fig.)
marsh - opengrassy or sedgy wetland developed on mineral soil and standing undershallow water at least part of the year,
maxilla - secondof the paired mouthparts, between the mandible and the labium(fig.)
median - at orincluding the longitudinal midline
median cleft - alongitudinal space or groove at the middle apical portion of theprementum
mental setae - see prementalsetae
mesad,mesal - towards the medianplan (or line) of the body
mesothoracic spiracle
mesothorax -second segment of the thorax, bearing the fore-wingpads in larvae andsecond pair of legs
metathorax -third and most posterior segment of the thorax, bearing thehing-wingpads in larvae and the third pair of legs
movable hook -hinged, hooklike process at the laterodistal corner of the larvalpalpal lobe (fig.)
monotypic -taxon consisting of only one constituent taxon at the next lowerlevel (e.g., a monotypic genus contains only one species)

N
naiad - termsometimes used for aquatic larvae of dragonflies and damselflies,mayflies (Ephemeroptera) and stoneflies (Plecoptera); frequently usedin fly-fishing literature and older entomological texts
nymph - immaturefeeding stage of an insect that does not undergo a majorreorganization of body form when transforming to the adult stage(e.g. Heteroptera); compare with larva

O
ocellus,
ocelli(pl.) - simple eyes on dorsal surface of head, usually three inOdonata (one median and two lateral), specialized for detectingchanges in light intensity

P
palp - hinged,laterodistal projections from each maxilla and each side of thelabium, usually sensory, but labial palps of larvae are modified forprey capture
palpal lobe -modified labial palp of larva, used for prey capture
palpal setae -row of prominent setae on the palpal lobe (fig.)
paraproct
pendunculate -having a thick, short stalk
pool - deepsection of a stream whereby during stormflow conditions the channelis being eroded. see also riffle
posterior - ator towards the rear, relative to another feature
premental setae- dorsal row of setae on the dorsal surface of the prementum(fig)
prementum -distal portion of labium bearing labial palps modified in larvae as ahinged appendaged that quickly extends forward to grasp prey
postmentum (oflabium) - proximal portion of the labium, in larvae folded backwardbeneath the head and thorax at rest, thrust forward to captureprey
postocular lobe
prothorax -first segment of the thorax bearing first pair of legs but withoutwingpads
protibia - tibiaof the prothoracic leg
proximal - towards the base, inward; ant. distal

R
riffle - shallowsection of a stream whereby during stormflow conditions channelsediments are deposited. see also pool
riparian -refers to vegetation adapted to growing along a corridor alongsidestreams and rivers

S
sclerite - areaof hardened cuticle delimited by sutures, grooves, or regions offlexible cuticle
serrate -toothed or notched along the edge, like a saw
seta,setae (pl.) - cuticular hairs or bristles producedby single, specialized epidermal cells; includes most of the smallhairs of the body surface
setaceous,setiform - bristle-like
sphagnum - alarge genus of mosses that often sequester nutrients andrelease...
spiniform setae- cuticular hairs that are formed like a spine
sternum -sclerite forming the midventral part of the body wall
superiorappendage - see epiproct
subacute -nearly acute but with the extreme apex rounded
subapical - justbefore or below the apex
subequal -approximately equal
swamp - woodedwetland, rich in minerals and near-neutral to somwhat basic inreaction (Crum1988)
synthorax -

T
tarsus -apical-most segment of the leg bearing two paired curved claws
tergum,tergite - sclerite of thedorsal and lateral surface of the abdomen
tibia - legsement distal to the femur and proximal to the tarsus
triquetral -three-ridged and triangular in cross-section
trochanter -second leg segment, following the coxa
truncate - cutoff squarely
tubercule -small, rounded, knoblike process
tumid -swollen

U
UP - say yah toda UP, eh? (=Upper Peninsula of Michigan)

V
ventral -underneath, lower surface of the body when organism is in normalwalking position. ant. dorsal
vestigial -small or imperfectly formed
villous -clothed in long, soft hair

W
wingsheath - pouch-like, dorsalfolds on the meso- and metathorax of larvae that give rise to theadult wings, and within which the latter can be see during the lastlarval instar