Pantala Hagen,1861(Libellulidae) - Gliders

Notes - MichiganSpecies List - Key -References
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Page last updated: 06August 1998 (EB)

Notes on theMichigan Species ofPantala

There are two species of Pantala in North America,both occur within our range (see maps below). Larvae are pale,greenish with light brown markings. Like that of other highlymigratory dragonflies, larvae are active, fast-growing predators thatadapt well to temporary lentic habitats, including those created byman. Larval development and descriptions of each instar forP. flavescens was thoroughly treated by Lamb (1925,1929) and summarized by Huggins and Brigham(1982). Prey varies from smallinvertebrates and probably zooplankton in earlier instars, tomacroinvertebrates and even small fish in later instars (Lamb 1925, Warren 1915). Time period for larval development probably variesconsiderably, depending on temperature and food availability, amongother factors, and has been reported from 145 to as little as 36 days(Lamb1925, Warren 1915, Bick1951). It is not known whether larvaeoverwinter in Michigan.

WWW-links on the ecology and biology of larvalPantala:
no links found as of 15 January 1998

Michigan SpeciesList

Map 1Map 2
Maps 1-2: County distribution of the Michigan species of
Click on map for a largerimage

Pantala flavescens (Fabricius,1798) - Wandering Glider
Pantala hymenaea (Say,1839) - Spot-winged Glider

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Key to Mature Larvae of MichiganPantala
(Based on Walker and Corbet1975)

1a. Width ofbase of lateral spine on abdominal segment 9 > 0.33x length ofspineís length (picture); epiproct with rounded dorsal surfacewhen viewed laterally (picture) - P.hymenea

1b.Width of base of lateral spine on abdominal segment 9 < 0.33xlength of spineís length (picture); epiproct without roundeddorsal surface when viewed laterally (picture) - P. flavescens

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Bick, G. H. 1951. Notes on Oklahomadragonflies. Journal of the Tennessee Academy of Science26:178-180.

Fabricius, J. C.1798. Supplementum entomologiae systematicae. pp. 283-285. Proft.(Schubothe), Hafniae.

Hagen, H. A. 1861.Synopsis of the Neuroptera of North America, with a list of the SouthAmerican species. SmithsonianMiscellaneous Collections4:1-347.

Huggins, D.G., and W. U. Brigham. 1982. Odonata, pp. 4.1-4.100. In Aquatic Insects andOligochaetes of North and South Carolina. Brigham, A. R., W. U.Brigham and A. Gnilka (eds.). Midwest Aquatic Enterprises: Mahomet,Illinois.

Lamb, L. 1925. Atabular account of the differences between the earlier instars ofPantala flavescens (Odonata: Libellulidae). Transactions of the American EntomologicalSociety 50:289-312.

Lamb, L. 1929. Thelater larval stages of Pantala (Odonata: Libellulidae).Transactions of the AmericanEntomological Society54:331-334.

Say, T. 1839.Descriptions of new North American neuropterous insects andobservations on some already described by (the late) Th. Say.Journal of the Academy of NaturalScience of Philadelphia 8:9-46.

Walker, E. M.,and J. S. Corbet. 1975. The Odonata of Canada and Alaska, Vol. 3.University of Toronto Press: Toronto. xvi + 308 pp.

Warren, A. 1915. Astudy of the food habits of the Hawaiian dragonflies or Pinau withreference to their economic relation to other insects.College of Hawaii Publications,Bulletin 3. 45 pp.

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